Learn more study less pdf

 

    Thanks for downloading the free preview version of Learn More, Study Less. Although the preview version is pages shorter than the full version, I've packed. hypothesis because holistic learning is less scientific fact and more practical cloud of protons is less important than the implications of these metaphors. Start by marking “Learn More, Study Less” as Want to Read: See 1 question about Learn More, Study Less. I first came across the productivity blog of Scott H Young while browsing through the answers to this Quora question: What learning strategies do people who are "quick.

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    Learn More Study Less Pdf

    Scott Young Learn More Study Less Video Course Download However Learn more study less PDF review - does Scott Young's guide work? Jun 7, . STUDY. PLAN. Proven tactics for achieving exam success from the youngest FSA ever. Learn More, Study Less. By Mike Jennings, ASA, CERA. Learn More, Study Less. Файл формата pdf; размером 2,02 МБ. Добавлен пользователем ubunic ; Отредактирован

    By using a variety of techniques, students can initiate strategies that will help them learn more, study less than their peers are, and retain more knowledge. To study less, learn more, and retain more information, students will need to focus on improving concentration, developing memory techniques, and remaining motivated for school. The ability to study less, learn more, and retain more knowledge should be developed in early grades. It is then that the principles learned will help students study less than their peers are, without sacrificing grades. Students that want to know how to study more in less time are not alone; it is one of the most frequently asked questions by students nationwide. No spam.

    This will help you quickly identify problems in the system you use for learning, and help you develop new techniques to combat weaknesses. The different techniques in the second half of this book are suited towards different stages in the sequence. Speed reading can help in acquiring ideas, flow-based notetaking and metaphor can help in exploring ideas. Model debugging and project-based learning can help you debug and apply ideas.

    Your ability to handle different formats of information and to eliminate clutter are essential here. In all cases, your ability to handle a medium of information forms the first filter which can enhance or destroy your learning efforts. Any information lost here is gone forever. No amount of holistic learning techniques can make up for a failure to acquire the important ideas. There is a lot of redundancy as many words are repeated. Reading requires that you consume the purest information possible.

    A professor that breaks down the meaning of a formula may be giving a lot of redundancy if you can determine how the formula is created on your own. Simplicity means you acquire the information with the lowest amount of redundancy. Supporting examples are important to the degree that they help you form models. Reading one sentence from this book offers far less understanding than reading every page. The more information you can process, the more you will understand. Someone who reads a books a year will usually have more knowledge than someone who reads only 2 or 3.

    Acquiring for Speed The final goal of acquiring information is speed. All things being equal, reading a book in thirty minutes is better than taking an hour. Speed tends to work against volume and simplicity. The faster you go, generally the less information you can absorb and the less discriminating you can be in determining what to acquire. The Acquire Phase can be enhanced by adopting better reading and listening methods.

    Even at this early stage, most people have significant room for improvements. Most people intuitively feel the Understand Phase. The holistic learning sequence could be seen as taking three layers, each expanding the degree of understanding. The Understand Phase forms the first layer, followed by Explore and finally Apply.

    Each provides more depth to the information you come across. With the Understand Phase, you are getting at the surface of information. As an example, say you are learning a new mathematical formula. You know the basics of what the symbols in the formula stand for, and possible problems that could be solved using this formula. If you repeat the formula enough times, you might even remember it.

    Learning by rote is learning with only the Understand Phase. The Understand Phase, is where most people stop and smart people go beyond. Simply reaching this phase shows that you have linked the information enough so you can understand the context.

    Learn More, Study Less

    Despite the limitations of stopping at this phase, it is the most critical. Unless you can acquire and understand the surface of information, you have no chance of building depth. Not being able to understand something instantly, isn't a sign you aren't learning holistically. My suggestion, when you encounter a tricky subject is to break it into components. Narrow down specifically what you don't understand so you can use further reading to fill the gaps.

    With your basic understanding that covers the surface of information, you now try to link that information to other concepts. Here you would start using models to simplify and expand your constructs. You would also broaden your understanding of not only how the information is derived, but what it is related to.

    A holistic learner would take the formula I mentioned in the last phase, and explore it. Where does it come from? What do the different components of the formula represent? What elements of the formula can be altered and how does that change results? What other formulas are similar to this in function or form? But once you make these methods a habit, exploration will naturally take over. There are three major ways you can explore ideas: depth, lateral and vertical exploration.

    Where does a formula come from? How was a discovery made? Why are things the way they are? Depth exploration requires that you create links into information. Instead of just understanding a formula, you understand its proof. You understand why the proof was developed and by whom. Now, through depth exploration, your formula becomes supported underneath a foundation of other linked ideas.

    The disadvantage with depth exploration is that it usually requires additional research. Some classes will provide some depth, but rarely the amount necessary to explore an idea. Depth exploration is probably the best method to lock an idea in place, but also the most time consuming. What formulas are similar to this one in function or design? What other discoveries were made at the same time, by the same person or in the same field?

    What other facts surround this one? Usually this means that you take models and link information between them. Relating one event that occurred in Ancient Greece with another event that took place in Ancient China. Lateral exploration requires less research than depth exploration, but more creativity. It requires that you see connections that might not be present initially.

    Your professors might not show you all the possible similarities and comparisons one formula has to another. Vertical Exploration Information follows patterns, those patterns can be found in other information. Can I compare this formula to a natural event, like water flowing or driving a car? How does this discovery relate to a completely different historical event?

    How is this idea similar to completely different ideas. Vertical exploration is the most difficult, but also the most creative way to learn. But, if used properly, it can be done with greater speed than the background research required in depth exploration. Vertical exploration is the biggest subject of the techniques in this book as methods such as metaphor and visceralization work well within vertical exploration.

    This benefits your creative thinking and can give you amazing powers to understand information. All of these three methods are equally valid. The techniques in this book can apply to any of the different types of exploration.

    The key is to practice and recognize what type of linking you are trying to create. Are you trying to build a foundation beneath an idea? Link an idea around similar ideas? Or create highways that bridge your idea and completely different ones? Creating diagrams can help with vertical, lateral and depth exploration. Metaphor and visceralization both work best with vertical exploration. However, holistic learning doesn't need to be fancy, just by getting curious and asking questions you can explore an idea.

    The problem with interlinking, is that a wrong connection can create false understandings. This happens when you believe you understand an idea, but the relationship it is based on is faulty.

    This may be a useful metaphor, but it might lack accuracy. Natural selection takes place over thousands of generations with relatively low error rates when replicating.

    Corporations can change completely over just a few generations with incredibly high error rates. Debugging can take many forms, from reading books from authors that oppose your points of view and can point out errors in your reasoning to testing your information 1.

    I mentioned earlier in the book how I understood what a subspace was by using a model which combined a 3-D background and red grid.

    Young Scott. Learn More, Study Less

    Unfortunately, this is only one form of a subspace. There are many others and the grid analogy might lead to incorrect conclusions. Debugging would help me fix this glitch. The only way to debug is to practice. You can cut down on practicing time if you form a solid foundation in the first three steps. For more suggestions on debugging, read the section on Model Debugging. Being able to apply information makes it more likely to match the real world.

    You would learn tax law better if you had to apply it to your own business than just hypothetical examples. You would understand statistics better if you designed your own experiments.

    Little information will actually get to reach this phase. But the more you can carry to this final stage, the more you will completely understand. Application is part practice and part creativity as you take theories and force them onto the real world. A certain amount of all information is subconscious. That subconscious portion might not be developed if you fail to apply. Someone who has read a library of business books may understand concepts, but someone who has run a business can feel them.

    Finding creative ways you can apply what you learn to your own life is the final step of holistic learning. As you go through the techniques in the latter half of this e-book, you will be trying out ways of learning that might dramatically differ from your current methods.

    Whenever you try new methods, information might get lost or absorbed differently. Testing allows you to track what your weaknesses are, so improvements can be made. Testing should determine what level of understanding you have for any idea. Understand Test - Do I get at a surface level what this idea means? Explore Test - Do I understand where this idea comes from, what it is related to and what outside ideas can be connected with it? Debug Test - Have I removed inappropriate links between this idea and others?

    Apply Test - Have I used this idea in my practical life? You might have heard the information, understood it at a basic level and connected it with other ideas — but failed to search through and delete false connections.

    Therefore your current level of understanding is just beyond exploration. Read over the description of the five phases again as you go through the techniques. That way you can better understand where you sit with any new idea you encounter. Just how am I supposed to vertically explore, create models or build constructs? At this point you may want to flip to Part II of the book. That section covers the techniques which are built on this theory.

    Instead it is a cycle that constantly jumps between steps. Understanding information goes back to Acquiring and then onto Exploration and Application before Debugging. Try to avoid seeing these steps as linear but as part of an ongoing cycle to create understandings. Identifying weak points is a matter of regular testing. More broadly, you need to pinpoint where your chronic weaknesses are. Everyone has different strengths and weaknesses when it comes to learning.

    Perhaps you are great at acquiring and understanding but poor at exploring. Or perhaps you can connect ideas easily, but make too many false connections.

    Finding your chronic weak points can tell you what techniques you need to master. There are no concrete rules. Acquiring Poor acquisition tends to manifest itself in one of two ways: 1 Reading or listening takes you a long time. This can be through taking too many notes or taking too few. Too many notes prevents you from thinking while the professor talks.

    If you lack the basic terminology of your field, you may get confused. The solution to poor acquisition is to improve your study, reading and note taking habits. I have suggestions in Part II for how to do this. My suggestion, if this is your stumbling block, is to seek as many well-written explanations as possible.

    Advanced techniques such as metaphor or visceralization can only work if the foundation of understanding is already there. Usually most people can understand the basics of an idea.

    It is the cross application and linking required to remember ideas that most people stumble on. Exploration Poor exploration is shown by inflexibility. Not being able to apply ideas to different problems is a weakness in the Explore Phase, not Apply Phase. He understands the basics of the formulas and remembers the examples his professor gave when solving mathematical problems.

    Now Johnny is given a problem on the test which requires him to use the formula in a slightly different way than he was taught. However, if Johnny breezed through the test, chances are his exploration is strong.

    Will he make use of the principles he learned during the course and apply them? Or will they not be able to make the jump from classroom to real-life? Debugging Poor debugging is shown by inaccurate connections. I find this is less common in the classroom, and more common in the outside world. In classes, most people do too little exploration. As a result, there is little that needs debugging, if anything.

    Believing cheering causes a sports team to win just because cheering matches up with winning is a good example.

    Schools, in my opinion, fail to look at this critical aspect of learning. Solving this phase is less technique and more practice. Get out there, run controlled experiments and give your ideas a test. You have only one brain, so you need to focus on fixing weak points in the sequence. Once you recognize weak points, you can practice techniques to strengthen them.

    Initially, adopting new techniques adds a bit of time. But as you master them, they become integrated into your natural strategy for learning. You might need to remember a list of dates for a history class, and need to know how polymorphism works in a computer science class.

    The information in each case has a different structure. Although the process for learning is similar, it is important to take into account the structure of information. If you eat a hamburger or a bowl of alfalfa sprouts, the process is the same. You chew the food, it is broken down in your stomach, nutrients are absorbed in your intestines and it leaves the body as waste.

    However a hamburger and bowl of alfalfa sprouts have very different structures. As a result you must chew, digest and absorb them in different ways to get the nutrients and remove the waste. Learning must 69 adjust for the difference between knowing the definition of a hundred terms versus being able to argue a thesis statement.

    Coming up with a solution for every type of information structure is impossible. Arbitrary 2. Opinion 3. Process 4. Concrete 5. Some information sits in-between categories: physics can often move between concrete and abstract.

    Biology can go between arbitrary and concrete. In fact, most topics have elements of each structure. This type of information is often encountered in schools and less frequently in the real world.

    Methods to Use With Arbitrary Information Your first goal with arbitrary information is to make it less arbitrary. If there is a logical pattern in the information, try to find that first.

    Otherwise the job of remembering and using the information becomes more difficult.

    Knowing how a heart pumps blood requires far more intelligence than simply remembering what the different parts of a heart are called. But this upside is also a curse. Since there is little understanding required, there is also little exploration that can be done.

    Therefore, this type of information is the most likely to be forgotten without sheer rote memorization. Arbitrary information is the hardest to learn holistically. If you need to remember a lot of arbitrary information for your classes, the Link, Peg and Information Compression methods can help make the process easier. Arguing whether Theravada Buddhism is superior to Mahayana Buddhism would require learning opinion information. This type of information is common in essays and presentations in school.

    Challenges With Opinion Information With opinion information, your biggest problem is the acquiring phase. You need to examine a large volume of information and look for patterns, rather than memorize specific details. Speed reading techniques are a great asset in gathering information. Diagraming is also a useful method with opinion information.

    It can help you distill your key ideas after reading. Writing a computer program, building a house and designing a prototype are all based on process information. Practice is the most important element to learning any idea you need to act upon repeatedly, but creating the right background concepts is also crucial for saving time. While a construct can be formed slowly with practice, having the right models can speed up learning. Here are some techniques to improve your models: Visceralization Metaphor Diagraming Model Debugging 77 Challenges With Process Information The biggest challenge with process information is that you need to actually put in the practice time.

    The benefit of process information is that, if you do practice, it tends to stick with you much longer than almost any other form of information. Practice fuses the models with your construct. Concrete information deals with ideas you can interact with tangibly. Most information sits on a spectrum between abstract and concrete, the difference can often be based more on the way it is presented than the content itself. For example, biology can be a concrete subject because you have physical diagrams that represent the information.

    But it can also be an abstract subject when trying to imagine enzymes, neurons or chemical reactions. Methods to Use With Concrete Information Most of the techniques listed in the second half of the book will work well with concrete information. Visceralization can be helpful if you want to put information into more than one of your senses. For example, you may see a diagram of a heart pumping blood, but could then translate this picture into a feeling or sound. Mathematics, physics, psychology, computer science and chemistry are all fields that rely heavily on abstract information.

    Quantum physics or calculus all depend on abstract models that may not be easy to picture immediately. Abstract information is the complete opposite of arbitrary information.

    Very difficult to understand but the pattern is highly logical. While arbitrary information may be incredibly shallow, abstract information can seem like diving to the bottom of an ocean. Methods to Use With Abstract Information When dealing with abstract information, you need to move it to a concrete level. Holistic learners usually excel in classes with arbitrary information. This is because they can understand the subject well in advance of other students who can never seem to wrap their heads around the complex ideas.

    Model debugging plays prominent role because your initial attempts to model an idea may have unintended errors. Challenges With Abstract Information The understanding and exploring phases here can be brutal. Since most of these courses tend to pile one idea on top of another, setting the right foundation is critical.

    Abstract information is an area where holistic learning can excel over other methods. By converting information into a format that is easier to imagine, you are more likely to form links surrounding that idea.

    Visceralization and metaphor are both great ways to do this. Deciding which category you need to learn can help you determine what techniques to use when learning and what obstacles you might face in remembering.

    A bridge with steel and careful engineering can be incredibly strong. Information structures can also be weak or 84 strong. You should always try to use strong structures when possible. An arbitrary structure is the weakest structure for information. It is the hardest to learn holistically, takes the longest to learn effectively and has little value outside its specific application. If possible, try to find patterns that make arbitrary information more logical.

    This will help in remembering. For example, if you have a list of definitions you need to memorize, go beyond the list. Even if the textbook offers no logical pattern, try to look for one.

    Maybe certain groups share a common Latin root word? Concrete and process structures are the strongest structures of information. Both of them create tangible experiences that help you link any new ideas through your senses. Creating a computer program combines concrete and process information structures. Because you can get immediate feedback through your senses about the effect of any changes, concepts quickly get wired into your brain.

    You can convert a weaker structure of information into a stronger form by practicing many of the methods later in the book. But do you know why? There are many possible reasons why you might enjoy literature over physics or computer science over accounting. You might have a natural aptitude for one subject over another.

    You might be able to use one subject in your daily life. One subject may even have a more interesting teacher, who can connect the abstract ideas to something you're passionate about. The question is, are you in control over which subjects you like and dislike? Can you make a boring class more interesting? Holistic learning and your interest in a class are tightly linked.

    The more 86 interesting you find the class, the easier it is to learn holistically. Do you find it easy to relate your favorite subjects, but hard to relate to boring subjects?

    This relationship works both ways. You can make a boring class interesting by learning more holistically. We all have things we need to learn that initially seem boring. The people who can brighten these dull topics will make studying easier while learning more. Using holistic learning methods you can connect to the ideas in a way that interests you. When you think of computer science, do you think of dull lines of text or a secret code of the universe?

    When you think of accounting, do you see income statements and balance sheets, or a map charting the beating heart of a business? When you learn history do you see dates and facts, or the epic story of millions of people?

    One of the best side-effects of holistic learning is that it forces you to look at subjects in a different light. Any set of ideas can be transformed from abstract principles into powerful images and stories that connect with what is most important to you.

    Why do you actually want to learn this material?

    What usefulness can it have in your life? Ironically, people who ask themselves questions like those are more likely to get better grades than the people who just want to pass with an A. Since they have a motivation to go beyond what is necessary to pass, they will understand the information more deeply than students who do not. When I was starting to learn computer programming, I was fascinated by it.

    I went far beyond the simple lessons they taught and tried to apply the information to programs I wanted to write. When I went through an accounting class, I immediately saw ways I could apply the principles to organize my own small business. When I went through a statistics class, I found the methods for determining significance and conducting tests to be valuable for my own experiments. Now, as I conduct business and personal experiments I use these mathematical principles for getting better information.

    When I went through a class teaching about vector spaces, I saw how the concepts of subspaces and vector spaces could be applied to my philosophy of life.

    Borrowing the concepts helped clarify ideas I had and gave me excellent metaphors for understanding. Why so many examples? Finding ways to use a subject even if it currently bores you to tears can give it new meaning. The ultimate step in holistic learning is to take the information you have learned and give it practical value. Almost any subject can have practical value if you choose to look for it. Giving a subject value in your daily life creates a far greater connection within your mental web than any technique I can possibly describe in Part II.

    Does your learning have a purpose? Learning without a practical purpose is a waste of your time. Holistic learning can make your classes more valuable. By linking ideas together, almost any idea can become useful.

    Try linking some of your course material to other ideas that interest you. Every idea you learn can be used as a building block for self-improvement. This is my strategy for learning new concepts and how I believe learning actually works best. It is based on linking ideas together, using models, building constructs and understanding different types of information.

    The second half of this book is devoted to specific techniques that work within the holistic learning framework. A good way of viewing the information of this book would be like playing chess. In order to play chess you first need to know the rules and basic objective of the game. The first half of this book could be seen as a similar set of rules and objectives when learning. Once you understand the rules of chess, you then move onwards to specific strategies and plays to win the game.

    Rather, a set of guidelines that can help. Simply having techniques without the framework would make it impossible to adapt to different challenges, just as knowing chess plays without knowing the rules of the game. Therefore it is important to apply the holistic learning theory to isolate where your weaknesses are before deciding which techniques to use.

    These techniques come from a combination of my research into different learning methods and my own experiments. Therefore, you might want to modify them to suit your particular learning style. List of Techniques I want to stress that this is simply a starting point for improving study habits. This means actually passing the information from a textbook through your eyes, optic nerve and brain. If you never see the information in the first place, or acquire it too slowly, that will put a stop to any efforts in learning.

    But speed reading is more than just speed. Simply trying to read faster usually results in lost comprehension. But by practicing with different reading techniques and changing how you read, you can read faster with better understanding.

    Speed reading could easily be divided up into enough techniques to fill another entire book and indeed it has: Breakthrough Rapid Reading is one of my favorites. Instead, it constantly makes tiny movements that slow your reading speed. Using a pointer can 97 improve your reading rate simply by focusing your eye onto one part of the page—the part you want to read.

    A pointer has the added benefit of allowing you to control your speed by changing the speed you move the pointer. Speed reading involves more than just reading fast, as sometimes you will want to slow down to carefully examine one section, and skim over another that is less important. To start using a pointer, grab a book and place your index finger right below the line you want to read. Move it across the line as you read before going to the next line. Although some speed reading experts advocate using a pointer everywhere, I tend to only use it for books.

    Using a pointer will feel uncomfortable for the first two weeks. Until you get into the habit of reading with a pointer it will probably seem slow and awkward. However, once you adapt to using your finger to scroll through the page, it will make sense. The extra control and focus it provides when reading is invaluable to boost your reading rate. When you practice read, you expect to absorb almost none of the material you are reading. The only purpose of practice reading is to train yourself to comprehend at a faster rate.

    Mark a point in the book and set a timer for three minutes. Then read through the book with your pointer slightly faster than you can understand all of the material. When the timer goes off, mark the line you finished on. This should give you your approximate words per minute assuming you read for three minutes. Another exercise is directed towards improving your comprehension. Similar to the above exercise, read for three minutes using your pointer. When you are completed, start a paper writing down every major or important idea you read in the 99 last three minutes without looking back at the book.

    Write as many ideas as you can think of that come directly from the book. Next, go through the book again and make a second list of important ideas.

    Take the number of ideas you correctly wrote down after the three minute session and subtract the ones you remembered incorrectly. Then divide this number by the total meaningful ideas you gathered in your more detailed search. This number represents your comprehension ability at that reading speed for that type of book.

    By practice reading you can aim to improve your comprehension at various words per minute, giving you greater speed and flexibility with reading. Active reading slows down your reading rate while greatly increasing your comprehension ability. Active reading goes beyond simply highlighting your textbook and writing small notes in the margins, but fully integrating ideas as they hit you. To start active reading, begin with your book and a notepad. On the notepad write the heading for the chapter and any subheadings for the section you are reading.

    After finishing reading a subsection using your pointer! During your active reading you should note down: 1 What the major points are from the section. The first question simply gets you to acquire the information fully. The second question forces you to link, visualize or metaphor the information. The third question gets you to move beyond this and apply the information in a different context. These three questions force you to move each major point through the understanding, explore and finally application phase of holistic learning.

    I might extend this by: - Remembering how I feel compelled to answer the phone if I hear a similar ringtone on a television program.

    Once you become familiar with it, I strive to use active reading only on sections I have trouble understanding or remembering. Mastering Speed Reading Speed reading, like holistic learning, is a skill. That means reading this book has no benefit to you unless you practice.

    Throughout this book there will be dozens of opportunities to practice and build new skills. My suggestion is to pick only one or two of these Mind Challenges at a time and practice them for a few weeks before taking on another. Don't forget to make use of the Speed Reading bonus material.

    The printout can make it easier to track your practice reading trials. The goal of this Mind Challenge is to make you comfortable with speed reading techniques and increase your reading speed and comprehension.

    Although each step may seem obvious at a glance, all too often students try to take shortcuts and miss opportunities for good learning. The most effective practice is to work a short time on each class every day. The total amount of time spent studying will be the same or less than one or two marathon library sessions, but you will learn the information more deeply and retain much more for the long term—which will help get you an A on the final.

    The important thing is how you use your study time, not how long you study. Long study sessions lead to a lack of concentration and thus a lack of learning and retention. In order to spread out studying over short periods of time across several days and weeks, you need control over your schedule. Keeping a list of tasks to complete on a daily basis will help you to include regular active studying sessions for each class.

    Try to do something for each class each day. Be specific and realistic regarding how long you plan to spend on each task—you should not have more tasks on your list than you can reasonably complete during the day. For example, you may do a few problems per day in math rather than all of them the hour before class. In history, you can spend minutes each day actively studying your class notes. Thus, your studying time may still be the same length, but rather than only preparing for one class, you will be preparing for all of your classes in short stretches.

    This will help focus, stay on top of your work, and retain information. In addition to learning the material more deeply, spacing out your work helps stave off procrastination. Rather than having to face the dreaded project for four hours on Monday, you can face the dreaded project for 30 minutes each day. The shorter, more consistent time to work on a dreaded project is likely to be more acceptable and less likely to be delayed to the last minute. Finally, if you have to memorize material for class names, dates, formulas , it is best to make flashcards for this material and review periodically throughout the day rather than one long, memorization session Wissman and Rawson, You will accomplish more if you study intensively.

    Intensive study sessions are short and will allow you to get work done with minimal wasted effort.

    Young Scott. Learn More, Study Less [PDF] - Все для студента

    Shorter, intensive study times are more effective than drawn out studying. In fact, one of the most impactful study strategies is distributing studying over multiple sessions Newport, Intensive study sessions can last 30 or minute sessions and include active studying strategies. For example, self-testing is an active study strategy that improves the intensity of studying and efficiency of learning.

    However, planning to spend hours on end self-testing is likely to cause you to become distracted and lose your attention. On the other hand, if you plan to quiz yourself on the course material for 45 minutes and then take a break, you are much more likely to maintain your attention and retain the information.

    Furthermore, the shorter, more intense sessions will likely put the pressure on that is needed to prevent procrastination. The silence of a library may not be the best place for you. You might find that you concentrate better with some background noise.

    Some people find that listening to classical music while studying helps them concentrate, while others find this highly distracting. The point is that the silence of the library may be just as distracting or more than the noise of a gymnasium.

    Problems are your friend Working and re-working problems is important for technical courses e. Be able to explain the steps of the problems and why they work. In technical courses, it is usually more important to work problems than read the text Newport, In class, write down in detail the practice problems demonstrated by the professor. Annotate each step and ask questions if you are confused. At the very least, record the question and the answer even if you miss the steps.

    When preparing for tests, put together a large list of problems from the course materials and lectures.

    Work the problems and explain the steps and why they work Carrier, Reconsider multitasking A significant amount of research indicates that multi-tasking does not improve efficiency and actually negatively affects results Junco, In order to study smarter, not harder, you will need to eliminate distractions during your study sessions. Social media, web browsing, game playing, texting, etc. Research is clear that multi-tasking e.

    Eliminating the distractions will allow you to fully engage during your study sessions. Use apps to help you set limits on the amount of time you can spend at certain sites during the day. Turn your phone off. Reward intensive studying with a social-media break but make sure you time your break! See our handout on managing technology for more tips and strategies. Switch up your setting Find several places to study in and around campus and change up your space if you find that it is no longer a working space for you.

    Know when and where you study best. It may be that your focus at PM. Perhaps you are more productive at a coffee shop with background noise, or in the study lounge in your residence hall. Perhaps when you study on your bed, you fall asleep. Have a variety of places in and around campus that are good study environments for you. That way wherever you are, you can find your perfect study spot. Become a teacher Try to explain the material in your own words, as if you are the teacher.

    You can do this in a study group, with a study partner, or on your own. Saying the material aloud will point out where you are confused and need more information and will help you retain the information. As you are explaining the material, use examples and make connections between concepts just as a teacher does. It is okay even encouraged to do this with your notes in your hands.

    Creating a quiz for yourself will help you to think like your professor. What does your professor want you to know? Quizzing yourself is a highly effective study technique.

    Make a study guide and carry it with you so you can review the questions and answers periodically throughout the day and across several days. Say your answers aloud. This will help you to retain the information and make corrections where they are needed. For technical courses, do the sample problems and explain how you got from the question to the answer. Re-do the problems that give you trouble.

    Learning the material in this way actively engages your brain and will significantly improve your memory Craik, Take control of your calendar Controlling your schedule and your distractions will help you to accomplish your goals. If you are in control of your calendar, you will be able to complete your assignments and stay on top of your coursework.

    The following are steps to getting control of your calendar: On the same day each week, perhaps Sunday nights or Saturday mornings plan out your schedule for the week. Look at your calendar and determine how many hours you have to complete your work.

    Determine whether your list can be completed in the amount of time that you have available. You may want to put the amount of time expected to complete each assignment. Make adjustments as needed. For example, if you find that it will take more hours to complete your work than you have available, you will likely need to triage your readings.

    Completing all of the readings is a luxury. You will need to make decisions about your readings based on what is covered in class.

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